《an introduction to genetic analysis sixth edition P916》求取 ⇩

1 GENETICS AND THE ORGANISM1

Genetics and Human Affairs3

Genetics and Biology7

Genes and Environment11

Techniques of Genetic Analysis17

2MENDELIAN ANALYSIS21

Mendel’s Experiments22

Simple Mendelian Genetics in Humans32

Simple Mendelian Genetics in Agriculture37

Variants and Genetic Dissection40

3CHROMOSOME THEORY OF INHERITANCE55

Mitosis and Meiosis56

The Chromosome Theory of Heredity62

Sex Chromosomes and Sex Linkage70

The Parallel Behavior of Autosomal Genes and Chromosomes76

Mendelian Genetics and Life Cycles76

4EXTENSIONS OF MENDELIAN ANALYSIS91

Variations on Dominance92

Multiple Alleles93

Lethal Alleles95

Several Genes Affecting the Same Character98

Penetrance and Expressivity108

5LINKAGE Ⅰ:BASIC EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOME MAPPING123

The Discovery of Linkage124

Recombination126

Linkage Symbolism127

Linkage of Genes on the X Chromosome128

Linkage Maps129

Three-Point Testcross131

Interference134

Calculating Recombinant Frequencies from Selfed Dihybrids135

Examples of Linkage Maps135

The X2 Test137

The Nature of Crossing-Over140

Linkage Mapping by Recombination in Humans142

6LINKAGE Ⅱ:SPECIAL EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOME MAPPING TECHNIQUES155

Accurate Calculation of Large Map Distances156

Analysis of Single Meioses159

Mitotic Segregation and Recombination167

7GENE MUTATION181

Somatic versus Germinal Mutation182

Mutant Types184

The Occurrence of Mutations187

Selective Systems191

Mutation Induction197

Mutation and Cancer199

Mutagens in Genetic Dissection201

Mutation Breeding203

8CHROMOSOME MUTATION Ⅰ:CHANGES IN CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE211

The Topography of Chromosomes213

Types of Changes in Chromosome Structure216

Chromosomal Rearrangements in Evolution234

9CHROMOSOME MUTATION Ⅱ:CHANGES IN NUMBER249

Aberrant Euploidy250

Aneuploidy258

Chromosome Mechanics in Plant Breeding266

10RECOMBINATION IN BACTERIA AND THEIR VIRUSES275

Working with Microorganisms276

Bacterial Conjugation277

Bacterial Recombination and Mapping the E.coli Chromosome286

Bacterial Transformation290

Bacteriophage Genetics291

Transduction298

Chromosome Mapping302

Bacterial Gene Transfer in Review302

11THE STRUCTURE OF DNA313

DNA:The Genetic Material314

The Structure of DNA315

Replication of DNA321

Mechanism of DNA Replication326

DNA Replication in Eukaryotes332

DNA and the Gene334

12THE NATURE OF THE GENE341

How Genes Work342

Gene-Protein Relationships345

Genetic Fine Structure358

Mutational Sites364

Complementation369

13DNA FUNCTION383

Transcription384

Translation389

The Genetic Code392

Protein Synthesis399

Universality of Genetic Information Transfer406

Eukaryotic RNA408

Mechanism of Gene Splicing412

Review416

14RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY423

Making Recombinant DNA424

Cloning a Specific Gene430

Fractionation of DNA by Electrophoresis442

DNA Sequence Determination444

The Polymerase Chain Reaction448

Restriction Maps449

15APPLICATIONS OF RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY459

In Vitro Mutagenesis460

Gene Synthesis462

Expressing Eukaryotic Genes in Bacteria463

Reverse Genetics464

Recombinant DNA Technology in Eukaryotes465

Gene Therapy478

Recombinant DNA and Screening for Genetic Diseases482

16THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES493

Genome Size in Eukaryotes494

One DNA Molecule per Chromosome494

The Role of Histone Proteins in Packaging DNA497

Higher-Order Coiling497

Heterochromatin and Euchromatin500

Chromosome Bands501

Centromeric DNA502

Sequence Organization504

Replication and Transcription of Chromatin513

17GENOMICS519

Assigning Loci to Specific Chromosomes520

Chromosome Mapping524

Physical Mapping of Genomes530

Genetic Analysis Using Physical Maps533

Genome Sequencing536

18CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION545

Basic Control Circuits546

Discovery of the lac System:Negative Control547

Catabolite Repression of the lac Operon:Positive Control554

Dual Positive and Negative Control:The Arabinose Operon555

Metabolic Pathways558

The Tryptophan Genes:Negative Control with Superimposed Attenuation559

The λ Phage:A Complex of Operons562

Multioperon Repression564

Structure of Regulatory Proteins564

Transcription:Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes—An Overview564

Cis Control of Transcription566

Trans Control of Transcription568

Regulation of Transcription Factors573

5-Methylcytosine Regulation575

Post-Transcriptional Control575

Control of Ubiquitous Molecules in Eukaryotic Cells576

19MECHANISMS OF GENETIC CHANGE Ⅰ:GENE MUTATION583

The Molecular Basis of Gene Mutations585

Spontaneous Mutations586

Induced Mutations593

Reversion Analysis600

The Relationship between Mutagens and Carcinogens600

Repair Defects and Human Diseases612

20MECHANISMS OF GENETIC CHANGE Ⅱ:RECOMBINATION617

General Homologous Recombination618

The Holliday Model619

Enzymatic Mechanism of Recombination626

Site-Specific Recombination630

Recombination and Chromosomal Rearrangements631

Duplication and Evolution631

21MECHANISMS OF GENETIC CHANGE Ⅲ:TRANSPOSABLE GENETIC ELEMENTS637

Insertion Sequences638

Transposons640

Phage Mu644

Mechanism of Transposition644

Rearrangements Mediated by Transposable Elements646

Review of Transposable Elements in Prokaryotes648

Ty Elements in Yeast650

Transposable Elements in Drosophila650

Retroviruses653

Transposition via an RNA Intermediate655

Controlling Elements in Maize656

Review of Transposable Elements inEukaryotes660

22THE EXTRANUCLEAR GENOME663

Extranuclear Inheritance in Higher Plants665

Extranuclear Inheritance in Fungi666

Shell Coiling in Snails:A Red Herring668

Extranuclear Genes in Chlamydomonas668

Mitochondrial Genes in Yeast672

An Overview of the Mitochondrial Genome676

An Overview of the Chloroplast Genome678

Mitochondrial Diseases in Humans680

Extragenomic Plasmids in Eukaryotes680

How Many Copies?683

23GENE REGULATION DURING DEVELOPMENT693

Regulating the Synthesis of Proteins694

Tissue-Specific Regulation at the Level of DNA Structure694

Regulation of Gene Transcription695

Transcript Processing and Tissue-Specific Regulation696

Post-transcriptional Regulation697

Post-translational Regulation698

Epigenetic Inheritance698

Dissecting Eukaryotic Regulatory Elements700

Regulatory Elements and Dominant Mutations703

Regulatory Cascades:Applying Regulatory Mechanisms to Developmental Decisions704

The Sex Determination Pathway in Drosophila705

Sex Determination in Mammals709

The Pathway of Antibody Production:DNA Gene Rearrangement and Antibody Diversity712

24GENETICS AND CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION719

The Cytoskeleton and Cellular Architecture720

The Cell Cycle725

Intercellular Communication729

Cancer:A Genetic Disease of Somatic Cells736

25DEVELOPMENTAL GENETICS:CELL FATE AND PATTERN FORMATION747

Pattern Formation:The Establishment of the Basic Animal Body Plan748

A Sneak Preview of Pattern Formation748

Investigating Early Development750

A Synopsis of Early Drosophila Development751

Establishing Positional Information754

The A/P Morphogens755

The D/V Morphogen758

The Establishment of Polarity in the Oocyte760

The Initial Response to Positional Information761

Refining the Initial Patterning Decisions762

A Cascade of Regulatory Events764

Determination of Segment Identity766

Homeotic Mutations and the Establishment of Segmental Identity766

Applying the Fly Lesson to Other Organisms:Mouse Molecular Genetics769

26POPULATION GENETICS779

Darwin’s Revolution780

Variation and Its Modulation780

The Effect of Sexual Reproduction on Variation789

The Sources of Variation791

Selection797

Balanced Polymorphism802

Multiple Adaptive Peaks804

Artificial Selection805

Random Events807

A Synthesis of Forces808

The Origin of Species811

27QUANTITATIVE GENETICS817

Some Basic Statistical Notions819

Genotypes and Phenotypic Distribution826

Norm of Reaction and Phenotypic Distribution828

The Heritability of a Trait830

Quantifying Heritability831

Determining Norms of Reaction835

Locating the Genes838

Gene Action840

More on Analyzing Variance842

FURTHER READING851

GLOSSARY859

ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS880

INDEX901

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