《introduction to engineering thermodynamics P617》求取 ⇩

1SOME INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS1

1.1 The Simple Steam Power Plant,2

1.2 Fuel Cells,4

1.3 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle,6

1.4 The Thermoelectric Refrigerator,6

1.5 The Air Separation Plant,8

1.6 The Gas Turbine,9

1.7 The Chemical Rocket Engine,11

1.8 Other Applications and Environmental Issues,12

2SOME CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS14

2.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume,15

2.2 Macroscopic versus Microscopic Point of View,16

2.3 Properties and State of a Substance,17

2.4 Processes and Cycles,18

2.5 Units for Mass, Length, Time, and Force,19

2.6 Energy,21

2.7 Specific Volume and Density,23

2.8 Pressure,25

2.9 Equality of Temperature,31

2.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics,31

2.11 Temperature Scales,31

Homework Problems,34

3PROPERTIES OF A PURE SUBSTANCE38

3.1 The Pure Substance,39

3.2 Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Substance,40

3.3 Independent Properties of a Pure Substance,46

3.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties,46

3.5 Thermodynamic Surfaces,53

3.6 The P-V-T Behavior of Low- and Moderate-Density Gases,56

3.7 The Compressibility Factor,57

3.8 Equations of State,62

3.9 Computerized Tables,63

3.10 How-To Section,64

Homework Problems,69

4WORK AND HEAT74

4.1 Definition of Work,75

4.2 Units for Work,76

4.3 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System,77

4.4 Other Systems That Involve Work,86

4.5 Concluding Remarks Regarding Work,88

4.6 Definition of Heat,90

4.7 Heat Transfer Modes,91

4.8 Comparison of Heat and Work,92

4.9 How-To Section,94

Homework Problems,96

5THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS102

5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Mass Undergoing a Cycle,103

5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Change in State of a Control Mass,104

5.3 Internal Energy—A Thermodynamic Property,110

5.4 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique,111

5.5 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy,114

5.6 The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats,117

5.7 The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases,119

5.8 The First Law as a Rate Equation,124

5.9 Conservation of Mass,126

5.10 How-To Section,127

Homework Problems,129

6FIRST-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME138

6.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume,138

6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume,141

6.3 The Steady-State Process,144

6.4 Examples of Steady-State Processes,146

6.5 The Transient Process,159

6.6 How-To Section,166

Homework Problems,170

7THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS180

7.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators,181

7.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics,186

7.3 The Reversible Process,189

7.4 Factors That Render Processes Irreversible,190

7.5 The Carnot Cycle,193

7.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle,195

7.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale,197

7.8 The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale,197

7.9 Ideal versus Real Machines,201

Homework Problems,206

8ENTROPY211

8.1 The Inequality of Clausius,212

8.2 Entropy—A Property of a System,216

8.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance,217

8.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Process,219

8.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation,224

8.6 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid,225

8.7 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas,226

8.8 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas,230

8.9 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible Process,233

8.10 Entropy Generation,235

8.11 Principle of the Increase of Entropy,237

8.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation,240

8.13 How-To Section,241

Homework Problems,245

9SECOND-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME254

9.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume,254

9.2 The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process,256

9.3 The Steady-State Single Flow Process,263

9.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy,267

9.5 Efficiency,269

9.6 Available Energy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility,275

9.7 Availability and Second-Law Efficiency,281

9.8 Some General Comments About Entropy and Chaos,286

9.9 How-To Section,288

Homework Problems,292

10GAS MIXTURES302

10.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases,302

10.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor,309

10.3 The First Law Applied to Gas-Vapor Mixtures,312

10.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process,315

10.5 Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures,317

10.6 The Psychrometric Chart,318

10.7 How-To Section,319

Homework Problems,323

11POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS330

11.1 Introduction to Power Systems,331

11.2 The Rankine Cycle,333

11.3 The Regenerative Cycle,339

11.4 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles,343

11.5 Cogeneration,347

11.6 Air-Standard Power Cycles,348

11.7 The Brayton Cycle,349

11.8 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator,356

11.9 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion,358

11.10 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles,360

11.11 The Otto Cycle,362

11.12 The Diesel Cycle,365

11.13 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems,368

11.14 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle,369

11.15 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems,372

11.16 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle from the Ideal Cycle,372

11.17 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle,375

11.18 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems,378

Homework Problems,382

12CHEMICAL REACTIONS393

12.1 Fuels,394

12.2 The Combustion Process,396

12.3 Enthalpy of Formation,404

12.4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems,406

12.5 Enthalpy of Combustion,410

12.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature,413

12.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy,415

12.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems,416

12.9 Fuel Cells,419

12.10 Chemical Equilibrium,421

12.11 How-To Section,426

Homework Problems,430

13INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER435

13.1 Heat Transfer Modes,435

13.2 Steady One-Dimensional Conduction,440

13.3 Extended Surfaces,450

13.4 Internal Energy Generation,458

13.5 Transient Heat Transfer,460

13.6 Convection Heat Transfer,463

13.7 Electronics Cooling,473

Homework Problems,478

CONTENTS OF APPENDIX487

APPENDIX ASI UNITS: SINGLE-STATE PROPERTIES489

APPENDIX BSI UNITS: THERMODYNAMIC TABLES509

APPENDIX CIDEAL GAS SPECIFIC HEAT555

APPENDIX DEQUATIONS OF STATE557

APPENDIX EFIGURES561

APPENDIX FENGLISH UNIT SUPPLEMENT567

APPENDIX GENGLISH UNIT TABLES577

ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS607

INDEX613

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