《intelligent instrumentation microprocessor applications in measurement and control P532》求取 ⇩

1.Introduction and History1

1.1Intel ligentvs Dumb Instrumentation1

1.2 Information and Signal Processing3

1.3 Systems Engineering3

1.4 A Historical Perspective of Measurement4

1.5 Types of Measurement and Instrument Specification9

1.6 Intelligent Instrumentation9

PART 1.MEASUREMENTS11

Interlude 113

2.Temperature Measurement14

2.1Introduction14

2.2 Expansion Thermometers17

2.3 Thermoelectric Thermometers21

2.4 Resistance Thermometers25

2.5 Radiation Thermometers (Optical Pyrometry)29

2.6 Practical Considerations in Thermometry32

Exercises 234

Bibliography 235

3.Force and Weight Measurement36

3.1Some Definitions36

3.2 Weight Measurement38

3.3 Force Measurement by Elastic Transducers40

3.4 Types of Elastic Element42

3.5 Methods of Force Measurement42

3.6 Strain Gauges43

3.7 Piezoelectric Transducers48

3.8 Linear Differential Transformers48

3.9 Force Balance Transducers49

3.10 Other Force Transducers50

3.11 Torque Measurement50

3.12 Conclusion52

Exercises 352

Bibliography 353

4.Pressure Measurement54

4.1Introduction54

4.2 Direct Pressure Measurement60

4.3 Indirect Pressure Measurement61

4.4 Electrical Pressure Transducers64

4.5 Other Pressure Transducers68

4.6 Conclusions71

Exercises 471

Bibliography472

5.Flow Measurement73

5.1Introduction73

5.2 Historical Background74

5.3 Technical Background to Flow Measurement74

5.4 PointVelocity Measurements76

5.5 Gross Volume Flow Measurement82

5.6 Gross Mass Flow Measurement88

5.7 Open Duct or Channel Flows93

5.8 Conclusions95

Exercises 595

Bibliography 595

6.Selected Other Measurements97

6.1Introduction97

6.2 Humidity98

6.3 Acidity/Alkalinity(pH)99

6.4 Density101

6.5 Sound102

6.6 Level103

6.7 Motion105

6.8 Chemical Analysis109

6.9 Conclusions110

Exercises 6111

Bibliography 6111

7.Digital Transducers112

7.1Introduction112

7.2 What Is Digital Transduction?112

7.3 Digital Encoders115

7.4 A Selection of Digital Transducers118

7.5 Conclusions128

Exercises 7128

Bibliography 7129

8.Units,Standards and Errors130

8.1Units and Standards130

8.2 Errors137

8.3 Conclusions150

Exercises 8150

Bibliography 8151

Tutorial 1(chaps 2-8)153

Revision 1(chaps 2-8)154

PART 2.DIGITAL COMPUTATION159

Interlude 2161

9.Number Systems,Logic and Logic Elements162

9.1Number Systems162

9.2 Logic170

9.3 Logic Elements173

Exercises 9178

Bibliography 9179

10.The Digital Computer180

10.1Introduction180

10.2 Types of Digital Computer181

10.3 Components of a Digital Computer System182

10.4 Structure of a Central Processing Unit182

10.5 The Power of a Digital Computer184

10.6 Microprocessors,Microcomputers and Microprocessing Systems193

Exercises 10193

Bibliography 10194

11.Input-Output Structures195

11.1Introduction195

11.2 Basic I-O Activity196

11.3 Information Transfers196

11.4 Input-Output Structures200

11.5 Signalling of External Events205

11.6 Microcomputer I-O Structures209

Exercises 11211

Bibliography 11211

12.Measurement of Digital Computer Power and Performance212

12.1Power and Performance212

12.2 Benchmarks and Performance Measurement212

12.3 Benchmarks213

12.4 Performance Measurement220

12.5 Example of Performance Measurement andTuning226

12.6 Conclusions229

Exercises 12230

Bibliography 12230

PART 3.INTERFACING231

13.Analogue Signal Conversion233

13.1Introduction233

13.2 Digital to Analogue Conversion234

13.3 Analogue to Digital Conversion242

13.4 Convertor Characteristics250

Exercises 13255

Bibliography 13256

14.Interface Components and Techniques257

14.1Introduction257

14.2 Analogue Components257

14.3 LogicComponents263

14.4 Good Interface Practice269

Exercises 14273

Bibliography 14274

15.Signal Processing275

15.1Continuous and Discrete-Signals and Systems275

15.2 Mathematical Matters276

15.3 Errors in Signal Processing277

15.4 Data Input277

15.5 Output Data284

15.6 Time Delays288

15.7 Other Processing Considerations290

Exercises 15292

Bibliography 15293

16.Interface Systems and Standards294

16.1Introduction294

16.2 Input Signal Flow295

16.3 Output Signal Flow300

16.4 Standard Interface Systems301

16.5 Proprietary Interface Systems306

Exercises 16309

Bibliography 16310

17.Communications311

17.1Distributed Control Systems311

17.2 Interconnecting Devices314

17.3 Serial Computer and Equipment Connections315

17.4 Communication Standards319

17.5 Local Area Networks321

17.6 LAN’s in a Control Environment325

Exercises 17327

Bibliography 17327

Tutorial 2(chaps 9-17)328

Revision 2(chaps 9-17)329

PART 4.SOFTWARE335

Interlude 3337

18.Real Time Languages338

18.1Historical Aspects338

18.2 Programming Languages and Support Utilities339

18.3 Choice of Language Level343

18.4 Choice of a Real Time Language345

18.5 User Requirements for a Real Time Language346

18.6 Language Requirements for a Real Time Language348

18.7 Real Time Languages352

18.8 Language Comparisons364

Exercises 18365

Bibliography 18365

19.Programming Real Time Systems366

19.1Introduction366

19.2 Program Structure367

19.3 Program Decomposition368

19.4 Program Composition374

19.5 Data Structures378

19.6 Conclusions383

Exercises 19383

Bibliography 19384

20.Real Time Operating Systems385

20.1Introduction385

20.2 Tasks,Priorities and Interrupts386

20.3 Design of Real Time Operating Systems397

20.4 Some Considerations of Real Time Operating Systems403

Exercises 20406

Bibliography 20406

Tutorial 3 (chaps 18-20)407

Revision 3 (chaps 18-20)408

PART 5.CASE STUDIES IN INSTRUMENTATION,CONTROL AND COMPUTING411

Interlude 4413

21.Case Studies in Instrumentation414

Case Study 11A Lift-in-Service Indicator415

12 Measurement of Magnetic Field Density419

13 (Thermistor) Temperature Measurement:Digital Transmission423

14 (Semiconductor) Temperature Measurement:Analogue Transmission427

15 Boiler House Status Monitoring430

16 Load Weighing in a Lift System434

17 Detection of the Resonant Frequency of a Vibrating Beam439

18 Platelet Counting in Blood Samples443

22.Case Studies in Control and Computing447

Case Study CC1 A Hardware Interface for a Hybrid Computer448

CC2 A Lift System Data Logger455

CC3 Remote Monitoring of Building Services460

CC4 A Distributed Data Acquisition and Control System464

CC5 Evaluation by Simulation of the Effects of Time Delay,Sample Rate and Quantisation469

CC6 Account Processing of Remotely Monitored Information475

CC7 Flow Control479

GLOSSARY482

INDEX522

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