《handbook of human vibration P988》求取 ⇩

Chapter 1Vibration and Human Responses1

1.1 Introduction1

1.2 Categorization of Vibration3

1.3 Effects of Vibration15

1.4 Methods of Human Vibration Research17

1.5 Summary25

Chapter 2An Introduction to Whole-body Vibration27

2.1 Introduction27

2.2 Some General Observations29

2.3 Effects of Whole-body Vibration32

2.4 Vibration Axes33

2.5 Frequencies of Whole-body Vibration36

2.6 Magnitudes of Whole-body Vibration38

2.7 Durations of Whole-body Vibration Exposures39

2.8 Confounding Factors40

2.9 Summary42

Chapter 3Vibration Discomfort43

3.1 Introduction43

3.2 Effect of Vibration Magnitude48

3.3 Effects of Vibration Frequency53

3.4 Vibration Duration71

3.5 Complex Vibration78

3.6 Other Factors Affecting Vibration Discomfort88

3.7 Models,Standards and Limits for the Vibration Discomfort of Passengers and Drivers99

3.8 Economics of Reducing Vibration Discomfort121

3.9 Summary122

Chapter 4Activity Interference Caused by Vibration125

4.1 Introduction125

4.2 Vision127

4.3 Control Activities144

4.4 Central Effects162

4.5 Combined Stress164

4.6 Duration Effects165

4.7 Vibration Assessment Methods166

4.8 Summary168

Chapter 5Whole-body Vibration and Health171

5.1 Introduction171

5.2 Physiological Responses to Whole-body Vibration173

5.3 Pathological Responses to Whole-body Vibration187

5.4 The Nature of Occupational Health Problems190

5.5 Environments Associated with Injury195

5.6 Prevention of Injury from Whole-body Vibration and Shock196

5.7 Dose-Effect Relationships200

5.8 Vibration Evaluation Methods204

5.9 Response to Mechanical Shocks211

5.10 Summary219

Chapter 6Perception of Whole-body Vibration and the Assessment of Vibration in Buildings221

6.1 Introduction221

6.2 Effect of Frequency and Axis on the Perception of Whole-body Vibration231

6.3 Perception Thresholds for Complex Whole-body Vibration239

6.4 Models,Standards and Limits for the Assessment of Building Vibration244

6.5 Other Problems265

6.6 Control of Building Vibration268

6.7 Summary269

Chapter 7Motion Sickness271

7.1 Introduction271

7.2 The Causes of Motion Sickness274

7.3 Effects of Low-frequency Translational Oscillation297

7.4 Effects of Rotational Motion310

7.5 Motion Sickness in Ships,Aircraft,Spacecraft,Ground Vehicles and Simulators311

7.6 Preventative Measures322

7.7 Summary330

Chapter 8Whole-body Biodynamics333

8.1 Introduction333

8.2 Measures of Dynamic Response335

8.3 Transmissibility of the Whole Body339

8.4 Whole-body Mechanical Impedance359

8.5 Biodynamic Modelling375

8.6 Summary384

Chapter 9Seating Dynamics387

9.1 Introduction387

9.2 Measurement of Seat Transmissibility391

9.3 Seat Evaluation Methods404

9.4 Summary413

Chapter 10Whole-body Vibration Standards415

10.1 Introduction415

10.2 International Standard 2631:Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-body Vibration417

10.3 Standardization of the Definition of Terms430

10.4 International Standards Concerned with Agricultural Tractors and Earth-moving Machinery431

10.5 International Standards Concerned with Vibration in Ships434

10.6 International Standards Concerned with Vibration in Buildings437

10.7 International Standards Concerned with Biodynamic Response439

10.8 Other International Standards439

10.9 British Standards441

10.10 United States Standards449

10.11 Other Standards450

10.12 Summary450

Chapter 11Methods for Measuring and Evaluating Whole-body Vibration Exposures453

11.1 Introduction453

11.2 The Position of Vibration Transducers455

11.3 Instrumentation for Vibration Measurement and Analysis461

11.4 Vibration Analysis with Respect to International Standard 2631 Part 1 (1985)476

11.5 Vibration Analysis According to British Standard 6841(1987)478

11.6 Summary481

Chapter 12Examples of Whole-body Vibration Exposures485

12.1 Introduction485

12.2 Road Vehicles488

12.3 Rail Vehicles498

12.4 Off-road Vehicles498

12.5 Aircraft506

12.6 Sea Vessels515

12.7 Buildings519

12.8 Other Environments523

12.9 Comparison of Methods525

12.10 Summary529

Chapter 13An Introduction to Hand-transmitted Vibration531

13.1 Introduction531

13.2 Quantifying Effects of Hand-transmitted Vibration532

13.3 Quantifying Exposure to Hand-transmitted Vibration535

13.4 The Dynamic Response of the Finger-Hand-Arm System542

13.5 Subjective Assessment of Vibration of the Hand548

13.6 Summary550

Chapter 14Vascular Disorders Associated with Hand-transmitted Vibration553

14.1 Introduction553

14.2 Symptoms of Vibration-induced White Finger556

14.3 Signs of Vibration-induced White Finger561

14.4 Methods of Categorizing the Signs and Symptoms566

14.5 Hypothetical Model of Vibration-induced White Finger578

14.6 Processes Associated with Vibration-induced White Finger585

14.7 Summary592

Chapter 15Non-vascular Disorders Associated with Hand-transmitted Vibration595

15.1 Introduction595

15.2 Bone and Joint Disorders596

15.3 Neurological and Muscular Disorders599

15.4 Other Signs and Symptoms607

15.5 Summary608

Chapter 16Dose-Effect Relationships for Hand-transmitted Vibration609

16.1 Introduction609

16.2 The Effects of Vibration Frequency and Magnitude610

16.3 Prevalence615

16.4 Exposure Duration and Latency619

16.5 Other Variables628

16.6 Summary630

Chapter 17Hand-transmitted Vibration Standards,Limits and Compensation633

17.1 Introduction633

17.2 Early U.S.S.R.Standards636

17.3 Early Czechoslovakian Standards638

17.4 Early Japanese Standards638

17.5 Swedish Standards640

17.6 British Standards641

17.7 French Standards645

17.8 International Standards646

17.9 Other Standards658

17.10 An Action Level for Hand-transmitted Vibration660

17.11 Threshold Limit Values663

17.12 The Law,Compensation and Government Legislation664

17.13 Summary670

Chapter 18Measurement and Evaluation of Hand-transmitted Vibration Exposures673

18.1 Introduction673

18.2 The Positioning of Vibration Transducers674

18.3 Instrumentation for Vibration Measurement and Analysis677

18.4 Vibration Evaluation According to Current Standards685

18.5 Percussive Metal-working Tools687

18.6 Grinders and Other Rotary Tools691

18.7 Percussive Hammers and Drills used in Mining,Quarrying and Road Maintenance694

18.8 Chain Saws695

18.9 Other Vibrating Tools and Processes697

18.10 Summary699

Chapter 19Preventative Actions for Hand-transmitted Vibration701

19.1 Introduction701

19.2 Principles of Prevention701

19.3 Managerial Preventative Measures702

19.4 Technical Preventative Measures705

19.5 Medical Preventative Measures708

19.6 Individual Preventative Measures709

19.7 Treatments for Injury and Disease715

19.8 Summary717

Appendix 1Units,Multipliers,Symbols and Abbreviations719

Appendix 2Frequencies and Spectra727

Appendix 3Vibration Levels:the Use of Decibels733

Appendix 4National and International Standards737

Appendix 5Whole-body Vibration and Health—Field Studies749

Appendix 6Examples of Vibration-induced White Finger from the Use of Percussive Metal-working Tools765

Appendix 7Examples of Vibration-induced White Finger from the Use of Grinding and Other Rotary Tools771

Appendix 8Examples of Vibration-induced White Finger from the Use of Pneumatic Hammers and Drills such as Used in Mining Work773

Appendix 9Examples of Vibration-induced White Finger from the Use of Chain Saws777

Appendix 10 Examples of Bone and Joint Disorders in Users of Vibrating Tools781

Appendix 11 Examples of Muscle,Nerve and Other Sensory Anomalies in Users of Vibrating Tools787

Appendix 12 Examples of Subjective Symptoms and Clinical Observations Associated with the Use of Vibrating Tools793

Glossary799

References863

Index953

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